Table of Contents
- Introduction to Interference of Light
- Principle of superposition of light wave
- Types of interference of light wave
- Conditions for Sustained Interference of Light Waves
- Explanation for Interference of Light Waves
- Application of Interference of Light Waves
Introduction to Interference of Light
When two light waves of same frequency or wavelength having the same phase or constant phase difference travelling simultaneously through a medium get superimposed, then the available energy is redistributed producing bright and dark patch on the screen. This phenomena is known as interference of light.
This phenomena of interference of light waves was discovered by English Scientist Thomas Young in 1801. Interference of light waves supports the wave theory of light.
Principle of superposition of light wave
When two or more light waves are travelling simultaneously through a medium or space, the resultant displacement at point and at a given time due to all the waves is given by the vector sum of the individual displacements produced by each wave separately at the same time. This is known as principle of superposition of light wave.
If y1, y2, y3, …. , yn are the displacement made by ‘n’ number of waves separately at a given point in same time then according to superposition of light wave, the resultant displacement at that point at same time is given by, y = y1 + y2 + y3 + …. + yn
Types of interference of light wave
The condition of interference when the crest of two waves overlaps each other and trough of two waves overlap each other is Constructive Interference. In the constructive interference of light waves, the amplitude becomes maximum and hence the light is intensified.
Constructive interference occurs when the path difference of two waves is equal to integral multiple of wavelength.
i.e. x = nλ, where n = 0, 1, 2, ….
The condition of interference when the crest of one wave overlaps with the trough of another wave is Destructive Interference. In destructive interference of light wave, the amplitude becomes minimum and hence the intensity of light becomes zero.
Destructive interference occurs when the path difference of two waves is equal to integral multiple of half of wavelength.
i.e. x = (2n-1)λ/2, where n = 1, 2, 3, ….
Conditions for Sustained Interference of Light Waves
- Two light sources must be coherent.
- Waves should have certain path difference.
- Two light waves must have same frequency and amplitude.
- Two coherent sources of light must lie very close to each other.
- Light sources must be coherent.
- Both light waves must be in the same state of polarization.
- Sources of light must be monochromatic i.e. both source of light must emit light of same wavelength.
Explanation for Interference of Light Waves
When light waves of same frequency and amplitude from two sources gets superimposed, the distribution of energy in a certain plain becomes uneven. This is due to different interference (constructive and destructive) at different points. This can be shown by a simple experiment which was originally given by Thomas Young in 1802.
Originally, a monochromatic source of light is passed through a small slit ‘S’. So, this slit acts as incoherent source. Then the light waves propagate ahead and strike other two slits ‘S1‘ and ‘S2‘ act as a coherent source of light since light waves crossing these slits have same frequency and amplitude.
Then diffraction of light wave occurs from two slits S1 and S2. Diffracted light waves get superimposed and condition of interference is obtained. In the above figure, dotted lines act as the crests of light waves and solid lines act as the trough of light waves. After superimposing of two waves, alternate bright and dark fringes are obtained.
Constructive interference occurs at the points where crest-crest and trough-trough of two waves meet. Amplitude of light wave becomes maximum at such points and a bright fringe is obtained. It is shown in the figure by denoting with the word ‘Max’. Similarly, destructive interference occurs at the points where crest-trough of two waves meet. Amplitude of light wave becomes zero at such points and a dark fringe is obtained. It is shown in the figure by denoting with the word ‘Min’.
Hence, alternate pattern of bright and dark fringe is obtained due to interference of light waves. This supports the Huygen’s wave theory of light.
Application of Interference of Light Waves
- It is used to determine the refractive index or thickness of transparent thin sheets.
- It is used to determine the wavelength of light precisely.
- It is used in holography to produce three dimensional images.
- It was initially used to disprove the existence of ‘ether’.