X-rays are the electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength ranging from 10-9 to 10-12 m and are invisible to normal human eye.
They travel in straight line with the speed of light in vacuum (3×108 ms-1).
They do not posses any charge i.e. X-rays are neutral.
X-rays are not deflected by electric and magnetic field.
They have high ionization power. They can ionize the gases through which they pass. Due to the high ionizing power of x-rays, they are used to cure cancer.
X-rays affect photographic plate and they are even more effective than ordinary light.
They produce fluorescence in some metals like Zinc sulphide, Bariumplatino cyanide, Cadmium tungestate, etc.
X-rays show wave like properties like reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization similar to that of ordinary light.
They can produce photoelectric effect and compton effect.
Excess exposure of x-ray on living beings may cause harmful effects.
They cannot pass through iron , lead, bone, etc and this property of x-ray is used in radiography. Absorption of x-ray increases with the increase in thickness and atomic number of the atoms in materials.
Secondary x-rays are produced when they fall upon some metals.
Frequency of x-ray is nearly equal to 1000 times more than that of visible light. Therefore, x-ray photons are much stronger than the photons of visible light.
X-ray produce highly reactive OH– ions in solution. So, they can carry out chemical change.
They are produced by the collision of fast moving electrons with the metal target of high atomic mass like tungsten, platinum, etc.